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Investor Relations / Publications

Publications

The following publications, posters and citations are provided for investors and should not be construed as marketing the use of any Amarin products or product candidates. Copyright to certain documents referenced below are held by their publishers. Where possible, a link is provided for access to further information about the respective publication. Note that AMR101 is the clinical name for Vascepa® (icosapent ethyl) capsules. For more information about Vascepa® (icosapent ethyl) capsules visit www.vascepa.com.

Cardiovascular Outcomes Trials

Bhatt DL, Steg PG, Miller M, et al. Reduction in First and Total Ischemic Events with Icosapent Ethyl Across Baseline Triglyceride Tertiles. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2019;74(8):1159-1161. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2019.06.043

Bhatt DL, Steg PG, Miller M. Reply to letters from Chan L-N and from Borghi C, Fogacci F, Cicero AFG. Cardiovascular risk reduction with icosapent ethyl. N Engl J Med. 2019;380:1677-1678.
https://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMc1902165

Bhatt DL. REDUCE-IT: Residual Cardiovascular Risk in Statin-Treated Patients with Elevated Triglycerides: Now We Can REDUCE-IT! European Heart Journal 2019;40:1174–1175.
Free:
https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehz179

Bhatt DL, Steg PG, Miller M, et al. Effects of Icosapent Ethyl on Total Ischemic Events: From REDUCE-IT. J Am Coll Cardiol 2019;73(22):2791-2802.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0735109719337969?via%3Dihub

Bhatt DL, Steg PG, Miller M, Brinton EA, Jacobson TA, Ketchum SB, Doyle RT, Juliano RA, Jioa L, Granowitz C, Tardif J, Ballantyne CM. Cardiovascular Risk Reduction with Icosapent Ethyl for Hypertriglyceridemia. N Engl J Med 2019;380:11-22.
https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1812792

Vascepa® Clinical Reprints

In Chronological Order

Vijayaraghavan K, Szerlip HM, Ballantyne CM, Bays HE, Philip S, Doyle RT, Juliano RA, Granowitz C. Icosapent ethyl reduces atherogenic markers in high-risk statin-treated patients with stage 3 chronic kidney disease and high triglycerides. Postgrad Med. 2019; epub ahead of print.
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00325481.2019.1643633
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31306043

Miller M, Ballantyne CM, Bays HE, Granowitz C, Doyle RT Jr, Juliano RA, Philip S. Effects of icosapent ethyl (eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester) on atherogenic lipid/lipoprotein, apolipoprotein, and inflammatory parameters in patients with elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (from the ANCHOR study). Am J Cardiol. 2019; epub ahead of print.
https://www.ajconline.org/article/S0002-9149(19)30637-X/pdf
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31277790

Ballantyne CM, Manku MS, Bays HE, Philip S, Granowitz C, Doyle Jr RT, Juliano RA. Icosapent ethyl effects on fatty acid profiles in statin-treated patients with high triglycerides: the randomized, placebo-controlled ANCHOR study. Cardiol Ther. 2019;8:79-90
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40119-019-0131-8
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30788718

Brinton EA, Ballantyne CM, Guyton JR, Philip S, Doyle RT Jr., Juliano RA, Mosca L. Lipid effects of icosapent ethyl in women with diabetes mellitus and persistent high triglycerides on statin treatment: ANCHOR trial subanalysis. J Womens Health (Larchmt).
2018;27:1170-6.
https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/jwh.2017.6757
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29583081

Budoff M, Muhlestein JB, Le VT, May HT, Roy S, Nelson JR. Effect of Vascepa (icosapent ethyl) on progression of coronary atherosclerosis in patients with elevated triglycerides (200–499 mg/dL) on statin therapy: Rationale and design of the EVAPORATE study. Clin Cardiol. 2018;41:13-19.
Free:
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/clc.22856/full

Bhatt DL, Steg PG, Brinton EA, Jacobson TA, Miller M, Tardif J-C, Ketchum SB, Doyle RT Jr, Murphy SA, Soni PN, Braeckman RA, Juliano RA, Ballantyne CM and on behalf of the REDUCE-IT Investigators. Rationale and design of REDUCE-IT: Reduction of Cardiovascular Events With Icosapent Ethyl–Intervention Trial. Clin Cardiol. 2017;40:138-148.
Free:
https://doi.org/10.1002/clc.22692

Mosca L, Ballantyne CM, Bays HE, Guyton JR, Philip S, Doyle RT Jr, Juliano RA. Usefulness of icosapent ethyl (eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester) in women to lower triglyceride levels (results from the MARINE and ANCHOR trials). Am J Cardiol. 2017; 119:397-403.
Free:
http://www.ajconline.org/article/S0002-9149(16)31738-6/pdf

Bays HE, Ballantyne CM, Doyle RT Jr, Juliano RA, Philip S. Icosapent ethyl: eicosapentaenoic acid concentration and triglyceride-lowering effects across clinical studies. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2016;125:57-64.
Free:
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1098882316300545

Ballantyne CM, Bays HE, Philip S, Doyle RT Jr, Braeckman RA, Stirtan WG, Soni PN, Juliano RA. Icosapent ethyl (eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester): effects on remnant-like particle cholesterol from the MARINE and ANCHOR studies. Atherosclerosis. 2016;253:81-87.
Free:
http://www.atherosclerosis-journal.com/article/S0021-9150(16)31254-0/fulltext

Ballantyne CM, Bays HE, Braeckman RA, Philip S, Stirtan WG, Doyle RT Jr, Soni PN, Juliano RA. Icosapent ethyl (eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester): effects on plasma apolipoprotein C-III levels in patients from the MARINE and ANCHOR studies. J Clin Lipidol. 2016;10:635-645.
Free:
http://www.lipidjournal.com/article/S1933-2874(15)30076-3/pdf

Bays HE, Ballantyne CM, Braeckman RA, Stirtan WG, Doyle RT Jr, Philip S, Soni PN, Juliano RA. Icosapent ethyl (eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester): effects upon high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and lipid parameters in patients with metabolic syndrome. Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2015;13:239-247.
Free:
http://online.liebertpub.com/doi/pdfplus/10.1089/met.2014.0137

Ballantyne CM, Braeckman RA, Bays HE, Kastelein JJ, Otvos JD, Stirtan WG, Doyle RT Jr, Soni PN, Juliano RA. Effects of icosapent ethyl on lipoprotein particle concentration and size in statin-treated patients with persistent high triglycerides (the ANCHOR study). J Clin Lipidol. 2015;9:377-383.
Free:
http://www.lipidjournal.com/article/S1933-2874(14)00408-5/pdf

Braeckman RA, Stirtan WG, Soni PN. Effect of concomitant icosapent ethyl (eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester) on the pharmacokinetics of atorvastatin. Clin Drug Investig. 2015;35:45-51.
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40261-014-0252-8

Braeckman RA, Stirtan WG, Soni PN. Effects of icosapent ethyl (eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester) on pharmacokinetic parameters of rosiglitazone in healthy subjects. Clin Pharmacol Drug Dev. 2015;4:143-148.
Free:
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/cpdd.150/pdf

Braeckman RA, Stirtan WG, Soni PN. Effect of icosapent ethyl (eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester) on omeprazole plasma pharmacokinetics in healthy adults. Drugs R D. 2014;14:159-164.
Free:
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs40268-014-0053-9

Braeckman RA, Stirtan WG, Soni PN. Phase 1 study of the effect of icosapent ethyl on warfarin pharmacokinetic and anticoagulation parameters. Clin Drug Investig.2014;34:449-456.
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40261-014-0194-1

Braeckman RA, Stirtan WG, Soni PN. Pharmacokinetics of eicosapentaenoic acid in plasma and red blood cells after multiple oral dosing with icosapent ethyl in healthy subjects. Clin Pharmacol Drug Devel. 2013;3:101-108.
Free:
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/cpdd.84/pdf

Braeckman RA, Manku MS, Bays HE, Stirtan WG, Soni PN. Icosapent ethyl, a pure EPA omega-3 fatty acid: Effects on plasma and red blood cell fatty acids in patients with very high triglyceride levels (results from the MARINE study). Prostaglandins Leukotrienes Essent Fatty Acids. 2013;89:195-201.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plefa.2013.07.005

Brinton EA, Ballantyne CM, Bays HE, Kastelein JJ, Braeckman RA, Soni PN. Effects of icosapent ethyl on lipid and inflammatory parameters in patients with diabetes mellitus-2, residual elevated triglycerides (200-500 mg/dL), and on statin therapy at LDL-C goal: the ANCHOR study. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2013;12:100.
Free:
http://www.cardiab.com/content/pdf/1475-2840-12-100.pdf

Bays HE, Ballantyne CM, Braeckman RA, Stirtan WG, Soni PN. Icosapent ethyl, a pure ethyl ester of eicosapentaenoic acid: effects on circulating markers of inflammation from the MARINE and ANCHOR studies. Am J Cardiovasc Drugs. 2013;13:37-46.
Free:
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40256-012-0002-3

Ballantyne CM, Bays HE, Kastelein JJ, Stein E, Isaacsohn JL, Braeckman RA, Soni PN. Efficacy and safety of eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester (AMR101) therapy in statin-treated patients with persistent high triglycerides (from the ANCHOR study). Am J Cardiol. 2012;110:984-992.
Free:
https://www.ajconline.org/article/S0002-9149(12)01432-4/pdf

Bays HE, Braeckman RA, Ballantyne CM, Kastelein JJ, Otvos JD, Stirtan WG, Soni PN. Icosapent ethyl, a pure EPA omega-3 fatty acid: effects on lipoprotein particle concentration and size in patients with very high triglyceride levels (the MARINE study). J Clin Lipidol. 2012;6:565-572.
https://www.lipidjournal.com/article/S1933-2874(12)00273-5/fulltext

Bays HE, Ballantyne CM, Kastelein JJ, Isaacsohn JL, Braeckman RA, Soni PN. Eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester (AMR101) therapy in patients with very high triglyceride levels (from the Multi-center, placebo-controlled, Randomized, double-blind, 12-week study with an open-label Extension [MARINE] trial). Am J Cardiol. 2011;108:682-690.
Free:
http://nlaresourcecenter.lipidjournal.com/Content/PDFs/4-Bays-Icosapent.pdf

Scientific Presentations at Society Meetings

Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy

Hilleman D, Teply R, Packard K. Knowledge, perceptions, and patterns of fish oil use in cardiac patients [abstract I16]. J Manag Care Spec Pharm. 2018;24(4 suppl a):S71.
https://www.jmcp.org/doi/pdf/10.18553/jmcp.2018.24.4-a.s1

American College of Cardiology

Bhatt DL, Steg G, Miller M, Brinton EA, Jacobson TA, Ketchum SB, Doyle RT Jr, Juliano RA, Jiao L, Granowitz C, Tardif J-C, Gregson J, Pocock SJ, Ballantyne CM, on behalf of the REDUCE-IT Investigators. Reduction in total ischemic events in the Reduction of Cardiovascular Events with Icosapent Ethyl–Intervention Trial. Presented at the annual meeting of the American College of Cardiology, March 16-18, 2019, New Orleans, Louisiana.

Toth P, Granowitz C, Hull M, Philip S. Long-term statin persistence is poor among high-risk patients with baseline peripheral artery disease: a real-world administrative claims analysis of the optum research database [abstract]. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2019;73:1744. http://www.onlinejacc.org/content/73/9_Supplement_1/1744

Wong ND, Fan W, Philip S, Granowitz C, Toth P. Burden of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk in persons with elevated triglyceride levels according to statin use [abstract]. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2019;73:1763. http://www.onlinejacc.org/content/73/9_Supplement_1/1763

Leatherman S, Ferguson R, Weir I, et al. Increased residual cardiovascular risk in US veterans and moderately-elevated baseline triglycerides and well-controlled LCL-C levels on statins [abstract]. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2019;73:1719. http://www.onlinejacc.org/content/73/9_Supplement_1/1719

Navar AM, Pagidipati N, Mulder H, et al. Triglycerides as a risk factor for coronary heart disease: what measure and what cutoff? [abstract]. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2019;73. http://www.onlinejacc.org/content/73/9_Supplement_1/1865

Mason RP, Sherratt SCR. Eicosapentaenoic acid inhibits membrane lipid oxidation in a concentration-dependent manner at pharmacologic doses in vitro [abstract]. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2019;73:2075. http://www.onlinejacc.org/content/73/9_Supplement_1/2075

Toth P, Granowitz C, Hull M, Liassou D, Anderson A, Philip S. Long-term renal function worsens in high cardiovascular risk patients with high triglycerides and well-controlled low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in a real-world analysis [abstract]. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2018;71(11 suppl):A1445.
http://www.onlinejacc.org/content/71/11_Supplement/A1445

Miller M, Ballantyne C, Bays H, Granowitz C, Doyle R, Juliano R, Philip S. Icosapent ethyl (eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester) reduces potentially atherogenic lipid, lipoprotein, apolipoprotein, and inflammatory parameters in high-risk, statin-treated patients with persistent elevated triglycerides and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein: a post hoc subanalysis of the ANCHOR study [abstract]. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2018;71(11 suppl):A1392.
http://www.onlinejacc.org/content/71/11_Supplement/A1392

Bays HE, Philip S, Chowdhury S, Doyle R, Juliano RA. Icosapent ethyl (eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester) in statin-treated patients with elevated cardiovascular risk and very high triglyceride levels: results from the MARINE study [abstract]. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2016;67(suppl):1950.
http://content.onlinejacc.org/article.aspx?articleid=2510327#tab1

American Heart Association

Toth P, Granowitz C, Hull M, Liassou D, Anderson A, Philip S. Long-term statin persistence is poor among high-risk patients in a real-world administrative claims analysis [abstract]. Circulation. 2017;136(suppl 1):A15786.

Vijayaraghavan K, Szerlip HM, Ballantyne CM, Bays HE, Philip S, Doyle RT, Juliano RA, Granowitz C. Icosapent ethyl reduces potentially atherogenic lipid and inflammatory markers in high-risk statin-treated patients with stage 3 chronic kidney disease and persistent high triglycerides [abstract]. Circulation. 2017;136(suppl 1):A15097.

Braeckman RA, Manku MS, Ballantyne CM, Stirtan WG, Soni PN. Effects of AMR101, a pure eicosapentaenoic omega-3 fatty acid, on the fatty acid profile in plasma and red blood cells in statin-treated patients with persistent high triglycerides (results from the ANCHOR study) [abstract]. Circulation. 2012;126:A18549.

American Diabetes Association

Toth PP, Philip S, Hull M, Granowitz CB. Long-term statin persistence is poor among high-risk patients with baseline diabetes: a real-world administrative claims analysis. Diabetes. 2019;68(suppl 1):616P.
http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/68/Supplement_1/616-P

Pagidipati N, Navar A, Mulder H, Wojdyla DM, Philip S, Granowitz CB. Association between triglycerides and residual cardiovascular (CVD) risk in patients with type 2 diabetes and established CVD: an analysis of the BARI2D trial. Diabetes. 2019;68(suppl 1):1472P.
http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/68/Supplement_1/1472-P

Sherratt S, Mason RP. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) inhibits human HDL oxidation in a concentration-dependent manner at a pharmacologic dose in vitro. Diabetes. 2019;68(suppl 1):612P.
http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/68/Supplement_1/612-P

Nichols G, Philip S, Granowitz CB, Reynolds K, Fazio S. Increased cardiovascular risk in patients with diabetes, statin-controlled LDL cholesterol, and residual hypertriglyceridemia [abstract]Diabetes. 2018;67(suppl 1):1485P.
http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/67/Supplement_1/1485-P

Fan W, Philip S, Granowitz CB, Toth PP, Wong ND. Prevalence and predictors of residual hypertriglyceridemia according to statin use in U.S. adults with diabetes [abstract]Diabetes. 2018;67(suppl 1):332OR.
http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/67/Supplement_1/332-OR

American Society for Preventive Cardiology

Bays HE, Ballantyne CM, Philip S, Juliano RA, Doyle RT, Granowitz CG.
The triglyceride-lowering effects of icosapent ethyl (pure eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester) correlate with reductions in ASCVD risk factors commonly found in hypertriglyceridemic patients.
Presented at: The American Society for Preventive Cardiology, July 27-29, 2018, Santa Ana Pueblo, NM. 

Gordon Conference on Atherosclerosis

Dunbar RL, Copland C, Jiao L, Wang R, Wong K, Millar JS, Escobar M, Siri-Tarino P, Juliano RA. Eicosapentaenoic acid exposure lowers triglycerides without raising LDL-C by slowing TRL production and hastening LDL clearance in patients with residual triglyceridemia. Poster presented at the Gordon Conference on Atherosclerosis, June 16-21, 2019, Newry, Maine.

Dunbar RL, Copland C, Jiao L, Wang R, Wong K, Millar JS, Escobar M, Siri-Tarino P, Juliano RA. Comparing eicosapentaenoic acid between plasma and serum from a randomized, controlled clinical trial. Poster presented at the Gordon Conference on Atherosclerosis, June 16-21, 2019, Newry, Maine.

Kern Lipid Conference

Abstracts are not published – approved to post to Amarin’s website

Juliano RA, Braeckman RA, Manku MS, Ballantyne CM, Doyle RT Jr, Soni PN, Stirtan WG. Effects of icosapent ethyl, a highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester, on the fatty acid profile in plasma and red blood cells in statin-treated patients with persistent high triglycerides (results from the ANCHOR study) [abstract]. Presented at: The Kern Lipid Conference, August 3-4, 2015, Vail, Colorado.

PI|LIFESTYLE (Epidemiology and Prevention | Lifestyle and Cardiometabolic Health)

Robert RC, Liu L, Tsai MY, O'Connell TD, Shearer GC. Eicosapentaenoic acid is a strong predictor of risk for heart failure in the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis. Circulation . 2018;137:A026.

European Atherosclerosis Society

Mason RP, Sherratt SCR, Malinski T. Eicosapentaenoic acid inhibited oxidized HDL-induced loss of endothelial nitric oxide release as compared to fenofibrate or niacin in vitroPresented at: The European Atherosclerosis Society Congress, May 5-8, 2018, Lisbon, Portugal.

International Society for the Study of Fatty Acids and Lipids

Sherratt SCR, Mason RP. Eicosapentaenoic acid inhibits oxidation of small dense LDL in a manner distinct from related fatty acids in vitro [poster]. Presented at: The Congress of the International Society for the Study of Fatty Acids and Lipids, Las Vegas, Nevada, May 27-31, 2018.

International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research

Nichols GA, Reynolds K, Philip S, Granowitz C, Fazio S. The potential of electronic health record data to optimize recruitment efficiency in cardiovascular outcome trials [abstract PRM9]. Value Health. 2017;20:A312.

Nyandege A, Burudpakdee C, Philip S. Predictive modeling to assess predictors of treatment success and failure among combination statin therapy patients [abstract PRM20]. Value Health. 2014;17:A546.

National Lipid Association

Lee A, Kinninger A, Jayawardena E, Shekar C, Cherukuri L, Dailing C, Hamal S, Flores F, Budoff M, Nelson J. Relationship between lipid levels and coronary atherosclerotic plaque scores by coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) in subjects with elevated triglycerides. J Clin Lipidol. 2019; epub ahead of print.
https://els-jbs-prod-cdn.literatumonline.com/pb/assets/raw/Health%20Advance/journals/jacl/jacl_abstracts-1558015686367.pdf

Case BC, Bress A, Kolm P, Philip S, Herrick J, Granowitz C, Toth P, Fan W, Wong N, Hull M, Weintraub W. The economic burden of hypertriglyceridemia among US adults with diabetes or atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease on statin therapy. J Clin Lipidol. 2019; epub ahead of print.
https://els-jbs-prod-cdn.literatumonline.com/pb/assets/raw/Health%20Advance/journals/jacl/jacl_abstracts-1558015686367.pdf

Philip S, Fan W, Granowitz C, Toth P, Wong N. Prevalence of US adults with triglycerides ≥135 mg/dL: NHANES 2007-2014. J Clin Lipidol. 2019; epub ahead of print.
https://els-jbs-prod-cdn.literatumonline.com/pb/assets/raw/Health%20Advance/journals/jacl/jacl_abstracts-1558015686367.pdf

Cherukuri L, Shekar C, Kinninger A, Birudaraju D, Jayawardena E, Hamal S, Flores F, Tayek J, Roy S, Budoff M, Nelson J. Association between lipids and coronary atherosclerotic plaque characteristics. J Clin Lipidol. 2019; epub ahead of print.
https://els-jbs-prod-cdn.literatumonline.com/pb/assets/raw/Health%20Advance/journals/jacl/jacl_abstracts-1558015686367.pdf

Sherratt S, Mason R. Eicosapentaenoic acid, unlike arachidonic acid, maintains normal membrane structure and cholesterol distribution under conditions of hyperglycemia. J Clin Lipidol. 2019; epub ahead of print.
https://els-jbs-prod-cdn.literatumonline.com/pb/assets/raw/Health%20Advance/journals/jacl/jacl_abstracts-1558015686367.pdf

Cherukuri L, Shekar C, Kinninger A, Birudaraju D, Hamal S, Flores F, Tayek J, Roy S, Budoff M, Nelson J, Johanis A. Comparison of atherosclerotic plaque characteristics among normal and high triglycerides (TGs) patients. J Clin Lipidol. 2019; epub ahead of print.
https://els-jbs-prod-cdn.literatumonline.com/pb/assets/raw/Health%20Advance/journals/jacl/jacl_abstracts-1558015686367.pdf

Fan W, Philip S, Granowitz C, Toth P, Wong N. Prevalence and predictors of residual hypertriglyceridemia according to statin use in US adults [abstract 178]. J Clin Lipidol. 2018;12(2):530-531.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1933287418300928

Hilleman D, Teply R, Packard K. Knowledge, perceptions, and patterns of fish oil use in cardiac patients [abstract 165]. J Clin Lipidol. 2018;12(2):552-553.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1933287418301247

Nelson J, He L, Gill R, Dansinger M. Plasma EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid)/AA (arachidonic acid) ratio in patients with stage 5 chronic kidney disease: a novel, treatable target? [abstract 183]. J Clin Lipidol. 2018;12(2):553-554.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1933287418301259

Nichols G, Granowitz C, Reynolds K, Philip S, Fazio S. The potential of electronic health record data to optimize recruitment efficiency in cardiovascular outcome trials[abstract 138]. J Clin Lipidol. 2017;11:796-797.
http://www.lipidjournal.com/article/S1933-2874(17)30175-7/fulltext

Larkin AT, Healy CS. Managing the lipid triad: improving physicians' understanding of the role of omega-3 fatty acids with CME [abstract 177]. J Clin Lipidol. 2015;9:466-7.

National Kidney Foundation

Szerlip HM, Vijay K, Ballantyne CM, Bays HE, Granowitz C, Doyle RT, Juliano RA, Philip S. Icosapent ethyl reduces potentially atherogenic lipid and inflammatory markers in high-risk statin-treated patients with persistent high triglycerides, EGFR <90 mL/min/1.73 m2, and diabetes mellitus [abstract 295]. Am J Kidney Dis.2018;71(4):589.
http://www.ajkd.org/article/S0272-6386(18)30432-3/fulltext

Vijay K, Szerlip HM, Ballantyne CM, Nelson JR, Granowitz C, Doyle RT, Juliano RA, Philip S. Icosapent ethyl reduces potentially atherogenic lipid and inflammatory markers in high-risk statin-treated patients with persistent high triglycerides, EGFR <90 mL/min/1.73 m2, and elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein =2.0 mg/L[abstract 317]. Am J Kidney Dis. 2018;71(4):594-595.
http://www.ajkd.org/article/S0272-6386(18)30454-2/fulltext

Obesity Society

Kedia AW, Lynch E. Omega-3 fatty acid treatment in an obese patient with hypertension and persistently elevated triglycerides despite statin therapy: reductions in triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and improvements in other lipid parameters following switch from omega-3 fatty acid ethyl esters to icosapent ethyl [abstract]. Presented at: the Annual Obesity Week meeting, November 2-7, 2015, Los Angeles, California.
Available online at: Page S154 http://obesityweek.com/app/uploads/2015/11/1104-Wednesday-ObesityWeek-2015-TOS-Poster-Abstracts.pdf

Vascepa’s Mechanisms of Action

Click here to read about Vascepa’s mechanisms of action 

Click here to see an animation of how Vascepa works

Click here to see an animation of the differentiated effects of Vascepa

Amarin Supported Peer Reviewed Articles EPA Research, Case Studies, Overviews

In Chronological Order

Toth PP, Philip S, Hull M, Granowitz C. Association of elevated triglycerides with increased cardiovascular risk and direct costs in statin-treated patients. Mayo Clin Proc. 2019;94(9):1670-1680.
https://www.mayoclinicproceedings.org/article/S0025-6196(19)30382-9/fulltext
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31405751

Toth PP, Philip S, Hull M, Granowitz C. Hypertriglyceridemia is associated with an increased risk of peripheral arterial revascularization in high-risk statin-treated patients: A large administrative retrospective analysis. Clin Cardiol. 2019;1–6.
https://doi.org/10.1002/clc.23241

Case BC, Bress A, Kolm P, Philip S, Herrick J, Granowitz C, Toth P, Fan W, Wong N, Hull M, Weintraub S. The Economic Burden of Hypertriglyceridemia Among US Adults With Diabetes or Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease on Statin Therapy. J Clin Lipidol. 2019; epub ahead of print.https://www.lipidjournal.com/article/S1933-2874(19)30236-3/pdf

Nelson JR, Raskin S. The eicosapentaenoic acid:arachidonic acid ratio and its clinical utility in cardiovascular disease. Postgraduate Med. 2019;131:268-277.
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00325481.2019.1607414

Picard F, Bhatt DL, Ducrocq G, Elbez Y, Ferrari R, Ford I, Tardif JC, Tendera M, Fox KM, Steg PG. Generalizability of the REDUCE-IT trial in patients with stable coronary artery disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2019;73:1362-1364.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0735109719302736?via%3Dihub
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30819552

Fan W, Philip S, Granowitz C, Toth PP, Wong ND. Hypertriglyceridemia in statin-treated US adults: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. J Clin Lipidol. 2019;13:100-108.
https://www.lipidjournal.com/article/S1933-2874(18)30472-0/pdf
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30594443

Nichols GA, Philip S, Reynolds K, Granowitz CB, Fazio S. Increased residual cardiovascular risk in patients with diabetes and high vs. normal triglycerides despite statin-controlled LDL cholesterol. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2019;21:366-371.
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/dom.13537
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30225881

Philip S, Fan W, Granowitz C, Toth P, Wong N. Prevalence of US adults with triglycerides ≥135 mg/dL: NHANES 2007-2014. J Clin Lipidol. 2019; epub ahead of print.
https://els-jbs-prod-cdn.literatumonline.com/pb/assets/raw/Health%20Advance/journals/jacl/jacl_abstracts-1558015686367.pdf

Nichols GA, Philip S, Reynolds K, Granowitz CB, O’Keeffe-Rosetti M, Fazio S. Comparison of medical care utilization and costs among patients with statin-controlled LDL cholesterol with versus without hypertriglyceridemia. Am J Cardiol. 2018. Doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2018.06.029. (epub of accepted version)
https://www.ajconline.org/article/S0002-9149(18)31321-3/fulltext 

Toth PP, Granowitz C, Hull M, Liassou D, Anderson A, Philip S. High triglycerides are associated with increased cardiovascular events, medical costs, and resource use: A real-world administrative claims analysis of statin-treated patients with high residual cardiovascular risk. J Am Heart Assoc. 2018;7(15):e008740. (epub)
https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/10.1161/JAHA.118.008740

Nichols GA, Philip S, Reynolds K, Granowitz CB, Fazio S. Increased cardiovascular risk in hypertriglyceridemic patients with statin-controlled LDL cholesterol. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2018 (epub ahead of print).
https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2018-00470

Mason RP, Dawoud H, Jacob RF, Sherratt SCR, Malinski T. Eicosapentaenoic acid improves endothelial function and nitric oxide bioavailability in a manner that is enhanced in combination with a statinBiomed Pharmacother. 2018;103:1231-7.
Free:
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0753332218309909

Sherratt SCR, Mason RP. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid have distinct membrane locations and lipid interactions as determined by X-ray diffraction. Chem Phys Lipids. 2018;212:73-79.
Free:
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0009308417303018

Sherratt SCR, Mason RP. Eicosapentaenoic acid inhibits oxidation of high density lipoprotein particles in a manner distinct from docosahexaenoic acidBiochem Biophys Res Comm. 2018:496:335-338.
Free: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006291X18300688

Gutstein AS, Copple T. Cardiovascular disease and omega-3s: Prescription products and fish oil dietary supplements are not the same. J Am Assoc Nurse Pract. 2017;29:791-801.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2327-6924.12535/abstract

Copple T, Ciffone NA. Managing hypertriglyceridemia: What can we learn from cardiovascular outcomes trials? Nurse Practitioner. 2017;42(suppl 12):3-9.
Free:
http://journals.lww.com/tnpj/toc/2017/12001

Nelson JR, True WS, Le V, Mason RP. Can pleiotropic effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) impact residual cardiovascular risk? Postgrad Med. 2017;129:822-827.
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00325481.2017.1385365

Borow KM, Mason RP, Vijayaraghavan K. Eicosapentaenoic acid as a potential therapeutic approach to reduce cardiovascular risk in patients with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis: a review. Cardiorenal Med. 2018;8:18-30.
Free:
https://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/479391

Nelson JR, Wani O, May HT, Budoff M. Potential benefits of eicosapentaenoic acid on atherosclerotic plaques. Vascul Pharmacol. 2017;91:1-9.
Free: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1537189116303147

Brinton EA, Mason RP. Prescription omega-3 fatty acid products containing highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Lipids Health Dis. 2017;16:23.
Free:
https://lipidworld.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12944-017-0415-8

Mason RP, Sherratt SCR. Omega-3 fatty acid fish oil dietary supplements contain saturated fats and oxidized lipids that may interfere with their intended biological benefits. Biochem Biophys Res Comm. 2017;483:425-429.
Free:
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006291X16321878

Handelsman Y, Shapiro MD. Triglycerides, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular outcome studies: focus on omega-3 fatty acids. Endocr Pract. 2017;23:100-112.
http://journals.aace.com/doi/pdf/10.4158/EP161445.RA

Mason RP, Jacob RF, Shrivastava S, Sherratt SC, Chattopadhyay A. Eicosapentaenoic acid reduces membrane fluidity, inhibits cholesterol domain formation, and normalizes bilayer width in atherosclerotic-like model membranes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016;1858:3131-3140.
Free:
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0005273616303297

Crandell JR, Tartaglia C, Tartaglia J. Lipid effects of switching from prescription EPA+DHA (omega-3-acid ethyl esters) to prescription EPA only (icosapent ethyl) in dyslipidemic patients. Postgrad Med. 2016;128:859-864.
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/00325481.2016.1241129?needAccess=true

Crandell JR. Switching from EPA + DHA (omega-3-acid ethyl esters) to high-purity EPA (icosapent ethyl) in a statin-treated patient with persistent dyslipidemia and high cardiovascular risk: a case study. Clin Med Insights Cardiol. 2016;10:123-128.
Free:
http://www.la-press.com/switching-from-epa--dha-omega-3-acid-ethyl-esters-to-high-purity-epa-i-article-a5790

Philip S, Chowdhury S, Nelson JR, Benjamin Everett P, Hulme-Lowe CK, Schmier JK. A novel cost-effectiveness model of prescription eicosapentaenoic acid extrapolated to secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases in the United States. J Med Econ. 2016;19:1003-10010.
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13696998.2016.1207652

Budoff M. Triglycerides and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the causal pathway of cardiovascular disease. Am J Cardiol. 2016;118:138-145.
Free:
http://www.ajconline.org/article/S0002-9149(16)30484-2/abstract

Reddy KJ, Chowdhury S. Improving lipids with prescription icosapent ethyl after previous use of fish oil dietary supplements. Future Cardiol. 2016;12:261-268.
Free:
http://www.futuremedicine.com/doi/pdf/10.2217/fca-2015-0009

Fialkow J. Omega-3 fatty acid formulations in cardiovascular disease: dietary supplements are not substitutes for prescription products. Am J Cardiovasc Drugs. 2016;16:229-239.
Free:
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40256-016-0170-7

Friedewald VE, Jones PH, Mason P, Roberts R, Weintraub H. The editor’s roundtable: current perspectives on triglycerides and atherosclerosisAm J Cardiol. 2016;117:1697-1702.
http://www.ajconline.org/article/S0002-9149(16)30285-5/fulltext

Tajuddin N, Shaikh A, Hassan A. Prescription omega-3 fatty acid products: considerations for patients with diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes. 2016;9:109-118.
Free:
https://www.dovepress.com/prescription-omega-3-fatty-acid-products-considerations-for-patients-w-peer-reviewed-article-DMSO

Mason RP, Sherratt SCR, Jacob RF. Eicosapentaenoic acid inhibits oxidation of ApoB-containing lipoprotein particles of different size in vitro when administered alone or in combination with atorvastatin active metabolite compared with other triglyceride-lowering agents. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2016;68:33-40.
Free:
http://journals.lww.com/cardiovascularpharm/Fulltext/2016/07000/Eicosapentaenoic_Acid_Inhibits_Oxidation_of.5.aspx

Castaldo RS. Switching statin-treated patients from fenofibrate to the prescription omega-3 therapy icosapent ethyl: a retrospective case series. Drugs Ther Perspect. 2016;32:162-9.
Free:
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40267-016-0288-3

Lyseng-Williamson K, McCormack PL, Kim ES. Icosapent ethyl in hypertriglyceridaemia: a guide to its use. Drugs Ther Perspect. 2016;32:91.
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40267-016-0278-5

Sperling LS, Nelson JR. History and future of omega-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular disease. Curr Med Res Opin. 2016;32:301-11.
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1185/03007995.2015.1120190?journalCode=icmo20

Hilleman D, Smer A. Prescription omega-3 fatty acid products and dietary supplements are not interchangeable. Manag Care. 2016;January:46-52B.
http://www.managedcaremag.com/sites/default/files/imported/1601/ManagedCare_201601.pdf

Ito MK. A comparative overview of prescription omega-3 fatty acid products. P&T. 2015;40:826-57.
Free:
http://www.formkit.com/journal/article/full/2015/12/826/comparative-overview-prescription-omega-3-fatty-acid-products

Kedia AW, Lynch E. Effects of switching from omega-3-acid ethyl esters to icosapent ethyl in a statin-treated patient with elevated triglycerides. Postgrad Med. 2015;127:869-73. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00325481.2015.1100086

Borow KM, Nelson JR, Mason RP. Biologic plausibility, cellular effects, and molecular mechanisms of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis.2015;242:357-66.
Free:
http://www.atherosclerosis-journal.com/article/S0021-9150(15)30055-1/pdf

Hassan A, Tajuddin N, Shaikh A. Retrospective case series of patients with diabetes or prediabetes who were switched from omega-3-acid ethyl esters to icosapent ethyl. Cardiol Ther. 2015;4:83-93.
Free:
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40119-014-0032-9

Mason RP, Jacob RF. Eicosapentaenoic acid inhibits glucose-induced membrane cholesterol crystalline domain formation through a potent antioxidant mechanism. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015;1848:502-9.
Free:
http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0005273614003514/1-s2.0-S0005273614003514-main.pdf?_tid=459fe736-3a1d-11e5-a20f-00000aacb360&acdnat=1438633490_d0b20d335cab312bada4ab54820590fb

Weintraub HS. Overview of prescription omega-3 fatty acid products for hypertriglyceridemia. Postgrad Med. 2014;126:7-18.
https://postgradmed.org/doi/10.3810/pgm.2014.11.2828

Castaldo RS. A retrospective case series of the lipid effects of switching from omega-3 fatty acid ethyl esters to icosapent ethyl in hyperlipidemic patients. Postgrad Med. 2014;126:268-73.
https://postgradmed.org/doi/10.3810/pgm.2014.05.2775

Jacobson TA. Perspectives on a new prescription omega-3 fatty acid, icosapent ethyl, for hypertriglyceridemia. Clin Lipidol. 2014;9:149-61.
http://www.futuremedicine.com/doi/abs/10.2217/clp.14.10

Hilleman DE, Malesker MA. Potential benefits of icosapent ethyl on the lipid profile: case studies. Clin Med Insights Cardiol. 2014;8:13-15.
Free:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3914996/pdf/cmc-8-2014-013.pdf

Bradberry JC, Hilleman DE. Overview of omega-3 fatty acid therapiesP&T. 2013;38:681-91.
Free:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3875260/pdf/ptj3811681.pdf

Weintraub H. Update on marine omega-3 fatty acids: management of dyslipidemia and current omega-3 treatment optionsAtherosclerosis. 2013;230:381-9.
Free:
http://www.atherosclerosis-journal.com/article/S0021-9150(13)00446-2/pdf

Ballantyne CM, Braeckman RA, Soni PN. Icosapent ethyl for the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2013;14:1409-16.
http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.1517/14656566.2013.798645

Friedewald VE, Ballantyne CM, Bays HE, Jones PH. The editor's roundtable: hypertriglyceridemia. Am J Cardiol. 2013;112:1133-41.
Free:
http://www.ajconline.org/article/S0002-9149(13)01612-3/fulltext

Jacobson TA. A new pure O-3 eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester (AMR101) for the management of hypertriglyceridemia: the MARINE trial. Exp Rev Cardiovasc Drugs. 2012;10:687-95.
http://www.expert-reviews.com/doi/pdf/10.1586/erc.12.56

Jacobson TA, Glickstein SB, Rowe JD, Soni PN. Effects of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and other lipids: a review. J Clin Lipidol. 2012;6:5-18.
http://www.lipidjournal.com/article/S1933-2874%2811%2900745-8/abstract

Other Publications Referenced in Amarin’s Investor Communications

Patel PN, Patel SM, Bhatt DL. Cardiovascular risk reduction with icosapent ethyl. Curr Opin Cardiol. 2019; epub ahead of print.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31464773

Toth PP, Philip S, Hull M, Granowitz C. Elevated triglycerides (≥150 mg/dL) and high triglycerides (200–499 mg/dL) are significant predictors of hospitalization for new-onset kidney disease: a real-world analysis of high-risk statin-treated patients. Cardiorenal Med. 2019; epub ahead of print.
https://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/502511
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31450229

Lazarte J, Hegele RA. Dyslipidemia management in diabetes. Canadian Journal of Diabetes. 2019. In press. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcjd.2019.07.003

Block RC, Liu L, Herrington DM, et al. Predicting risk for incident heart failure with omega-3 fatty acids: from MESA. JACC Heart Fail. 2019 Jul 3. pii: S2213-1779(19)30217-3. doi: 10.1016/j.jchf.2019.03.008.

Preston Mason, R. New Insights into Mechanisms of Action for Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Atherothrombotic Cardiovascular Disease. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2019;21:2.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11883-019-0762-1

Ganda OP, Bhatt DL, Mason RP, Miller M, Boden WE. Unmet Need for Adjunctive Dyslipidemia Therapy in Hypertriglyceridemia Management. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2018 (epub ahead of print).
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0735109718348174?via%3Dihub

Budoff M, Brent Muhlestein J, Le VT, May HT, Roy S, Nelson JR. Effect of Vascepa (icosapent ethyl) on progression of coronary atherosclerosis in patients with elevated triglycerides (200–499 mg/dL) on statin therapy: Rationale and design of the EVAPORATE study Clin Cardiol. 2018;1–7.
Free :
https://doi.org/10.1002/clc.22856

J.R. Nelson, O. Wani, H.T. May, M. Budoff. Potential benefits of eicosapentaenoic acid on atherosclerotic plaques. Vascular Pharmacology. 2017; 91:1-9.
Free:
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1537189116303147?via%3Dihub

Watanabe, K. Ando, H. Daidoji, et al., CHERRY study investigators. A randomized controlled trial of eicosapentaenoic acid in patients with coronary heart disease on statins. Journal of Cardiology.2017;70:537-544.
http://www.journal-of-cardiology.com/article/S0914-5087(17)30200-9/fulltext

Nordestgaard. Triglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins and Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease: New Insights From Epidemiology, Genetics, and Biology. Circulation.2016;118:547-563.
http://circres.ahajournals.org/content/118/4/547.long

For categorization of papers that support correlation between TG levels and CV risk, click here.

 

This page was last updated on September 12, 2019.

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